The innovation of the fountain pen ushered the next major milestone in writing. The fountain pen had a significant disadvantage: since it had a narrow cylinder, an eyedropper would be used to fill its ink reservoir. Additionally, the nineteenth-century inks had the propensity of clotting before reaching the point of the pen.
In 1884, a New Yorker stationer called L.E Waterman acquired exclusive rights for an experimental ink filling model. He employed a tractable rubber chamber and a prise on the pen’s back. The air was squeezed from the chamber by lifting the lever to create a void. On releasing the lever, it would be drawn into the reservoir. The name Waterman was soon associated with the fountain pen.
The fountain pen experienced several innovations, such as the use of removable cylinders within the
The concept of employing a revolving ball to spread the ink to the writing material was conceived by John H. Loud, an American innovator. He was given his initial exclusive rights in 1888. This first form was meant to be used on rough surfaces, for example, cardboards. Loud’s designs-several, more exclusive rights were an issued-a point where the user was provided with the required ink flow for good penmanship was never reached.
During World War II, a Hungarian named Lazlo Biro living in Argentina used a derivative of war technology to make a pen capable of writing on paper. Biro pens of Argentina were incorporated by Lazlo Biro and his brother Gyorgy in 1943. Their design was authorized for production in the United Kingdom to supply the Royal Air Force who had realized that the ballpoint pens worked better than the fountain pens at high altitude. Marcel Bich acquired exclusive rights from Biro in 1945, and the pen became Bic Company’s primary product.
The new technology became recognized for its dependability by the 1950s. A housed ground ball with four to six depressions that disseminated the link to the ball was utilized at this time. The grooves assisted in evenly spreading the ink.
Fun Fact About Ink:
Except for the stylus and clay, the ink was required by all the tools described. We look to Egypt to understand the origin of ink, particularly the old kingdom. Reed pens that needed ink were used by the ancient Egyptians. They seem to have discovered in 2697 BCE. Black carbon or finely atomized pin ash gave their ink its black color. Lamp oil containing gelatin obtained from boiling donkey skin was added to these components, and since the ink had a pungent smell, to give it a better smell, the Egyptians added musk oil.
At this time, the ancient Egyptians were not the only ones experimenting on ink: sometime in the 23rd century BCE, the Chinese were combining natural dye with graphite and water to produce an ink that brushes could be used to spread.
In the fourth century BCE, in was made from burnt bones, tar, pitch and other materials in India. A sharp tipped needle was used in writing with this ink.